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In a macro perspective, Marketing can be broadly classified into four different types: B2B, B2C, C2B, and C2C. Among them, B2B and B2C are traditional models, while C2B and C2C are newer models.

1. B2B MARKETING: refers to the strategies and tactics employed to reach business customers or organizations. Examples include equipment for cosmetic inspection, production lines, packaging lines, etc.


2. B2C MARKETING: refers to the strategies and tactics used to reach end consumers. Examples include shampoo, cosmetics, beverages, etc.

The classification of Marketing is significant because the approaches and marketing plans differ greatly between B2B and B2C.

For instance, in B2B Marketing, many companies use the 3M model consisting of Market, Message, and Media. In contrast, B2C models often utilize the 4Ps, 6Ps, 8Ps, or even 10Ps. The basic 4Ps are Product, Price, Place, and Promotion.

The above two models have been established for a long time. Now let's discuss the two newer models that have emerged in recent years due to the development of e-commerce and digital marketing.

3. C2B MARKETING: stands for consumers to business. It may sound somewhat paradoxical because how can consumers create and sell products to businesses? But it is happening now!

Let's take an example. When you sell products on e-commerce platforms like Amazon or Shopee, someone may ask if you buy reviews. In order to write a review for you, they must own and have used your product.

Today, many companies connect individuals who can provide reviews and create review packages or sharing services for brands and stores. This is the C2B model, where customers not only get to use the product but also receive compensation.


4. C2C MARKETING: refers to consumers selling to consumers through a third party. Examples include auctioning on eBay, domain auctions on Godaddy, or buying and selling on platforms like Chợ Tốt or Vật Giá.

Now, let's narrow down the classification to a more micro level and focus on B2C. Within this larger group, we can essentially divide it into four smaller groups: Traditional Marketing, Non-traditional Marketing, Direct Marketing, and Professional Marketing.

Now, let's discuss each of these types:

A. Traditional Marketing: It refers to companies, especially in the consumer goods sector, using traditional media channels to reach and promote their brands. It can be further divided into two subcategories: Consumer Marketing and Trade Marketing, which some companies refer to as Strategic Marketing and Operational Marketing. The former group focuses on consumer-oriented strategies, targeting and expanding the consumer base, encouraging increased and frequent usage. The latter group focuses on marketing activities at the point of sale or where customers make purchasing decisions or use the products/services (e.g., restaurants, cafes, movie theaters). The traditional channels we know, such as TV, print media, OOH (Out-of-Home), events, banners, posters, etc., are used for reaching the target audience.

B. Non-traditional Marketing: This category has expanded significantly and includes Digital Marketing, Affiliate Marketing, Social Marketing, Influencer Marketing, and Destination Marketing. Among these, Digital Marketing and Affiliate Marketing are the most common. While some people consider Social Marketing, Influencer Marketing, and Destination Marketing to be part of Digital Marketing, Affiliate Marketing can be viewed as a smaller model or a tool within Digital Marketing. However, if we consider Affiliate Marketing as a business, the tools of Digital Marketing still support it. Therefore, in this article, we will separate Affiliate Marketing and Pure Digital Marketing.

Digital Marketing itself has various subdivisions depending on the needs of the business. For example, some companies divide it into inbound marketing and outbound marketing, while others categorize it into content marketing and performance marketing. There are also companies that differentiate between paid marketing and organic marketing. In general, one group focuses on content to attract viewers and drive traffic to owned media, while another group focuses on driving traffic from external sources, including backlink systems and advertising.

Affiliate Marketing is a model where you promote someone else's products and earn a commission. For instance, a cosmetics company, A, may have a public affiliate marketing program on their website. If you sign up as an affiliate for this cosmetics company and they offer a 12% commission, you will receive a unique link to share. If someone clicks on your link and makes a purchase, you will earn a 12% commission. Typically, commissions for digital products range from 30% to 75%, while physical products range from 6% to 12%. Digital products include e-books, online courses, software, membership cards, while common physical products include cosmetics and functional foods.

C. Professional Marketing includes Relationship Marketing and Partnership Marketing. For example, Nestle has Nestle Professional, and Unilever has Food Solution. The approach in this business area is quite different from B2C or B2B, as mentioned earlier.

This type of business targets influencers, such as chefs, bartenders, and kitchen experts, which falls under relationship marketing. When companies collaborate with other businesses to carry out marketing activities or combine resources for communication, it is referred to as partnership marketing.

We can also see these two types within the cosmetics industry, especially in pharmaceutical cosmetics. When launching a new product, they follow different phases. Phase 1 involves approaching opinion leaders, followed by phase 2 targeting dermatologists and aesthetic dermatologists. Phase 3 focuses on technicians and pharmacists, and finally, they reach the end consumers. Relationship marketing is applied during phase 1 and phase 2.

D. Direct Marketing 

Direct marketing is a targeted form of marketing that involves reaching out to individuals or specific target audiences directly, without intermediaries. It is a strategy that allows businesses to establish direct communication channels with their customers, aiming to generate immediate responses and measurable outcomes. Direct marketing relies on various channels, including direct mail, telemarketing, email marketing, SMS marketing, and personalized online advertisements.

The above classifications are based on my personal observations and intended to help those who are new to marketing understand the nature of each type, in order to guide their careers or future paths. Currently, I have not come across an official classification. Hopefully, this information will be somewhat helpful for those seeking to learn more about Marketing.

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